SVIBOR - Project code: 2-11-002


Strossmayerov trg 4, HR - 10000 ZAGREB
tel.: +385 1 459 44 44, fax: +385 1 459 44 69


SVIBOR - Collecting Data on Projects in Croatia

Project code: 2-11-002


Main researcher: STOJIĆ, PETAR (92774)

Type of research: developmental
Duration from: 06/01/91. to 12/31/93.

Papers on project (total): 2
Institution name: Građevinski fakultet, Split (83)
City: 21000 - Split, Croatia
Phone: 385 (0)21 52 33 33
Fax: 385 (0)21 52 41 62

Summary: WATER RESOURCES FOR ELECTRICITY Fuel and water are the main sources for production of electric power, where hydropower is regarded as primary and thermal generated power as secondary source of energy. World reserves of commercial flues are limited and recent studies confirm world's energy challenges. Hydro potential in world's hydro resources: river, oceans and underground is vast. Hydro is expected to play an important role in future electiricity supply in all cases. The hydrological characteristics of river water determine the fundamental characteristics of water power, in conventional hydroelectric power plants, as renewable energy resources. Renewable energy is energy form, the supply of wich is partly or wholly regenerated in the course of annual solar cycle. Future prospect for hydropower challenges hydro development with technological progress and improvement of hydro schemes. Pumped storage plants, with reversible pump - turbine technology, are worldwide. The development of new pump storage facilities in some cases is made economically feasible through innovations such as the utilization of existing excaveted (mined) space for underground lower reservoirs. Upper regulating reservoirs in many cases are multipurpose man made lakes and lower reservoirs are the existing reservoirs. The west developed countries have recently initiated intiatives to modernize the system of existing hydropower plants, increasing its capacity and efficiency, and ensuring that the system will continue to perform reliable, into next century. Modern hydro construction has led to the necessity to revise the designes of future schemes, including some which are already under construction. In many countries on the sea side future developments are planed in tidal power plants, with tidal barrage, a large dam across bayor in estuary, with capture the tide and discharges through reversible bulb turbines. There are numerous marine energy resources projects and hydroelectric schemes throughout the oceans nad seas. On and off shore wave energy potential and trends in turbine technology are in operational experiences with pilot plants. Researches have greatly contributed to theoretical and practical work of wave power absorption device with near shore or of shore "dams" across the propagation direction of wave energy flux. Geothermal power is derived from natural internal heat of the earth. It is extracted as a heated fluid, usualy water or mixture of steam and water (wet steam), but sometimes dry steam. In a few countries geothermal power mainly is converted to electrical power at or very close to the place where is tapped. Geothermal total resources is enermous, but only a very small proportion can be exploited with present technology. It should be noted that in the last years has started to devote special attention to development of small hydro shemes. Miny hydro project might comprise 5 - 10 percent of the world's total hydro resources. In isolated areas, for village electrification schemes and small industry they can supplement or replace diesels. Deriving small hydropower is possible today with packaged micro hydro units. It is now generally accepted that energy problem of the 1970's was no passing phenomenon, but marked the end of an era of cheap coal and oil, and transition to high cost energy. Given the large increases in oil prices many hydro sites wich were previously uneconomical have bicome attractive. Coventional resources for electric power, as it known, are hydro, thermo and nuclear power. Termo electric power plants (steam generating station) need water for steam, cooling and sometimes for transport slag, cinder and dross. Nuclear power plants (fission) with commercial PWR reactors have three water's circuit: primary circuit (loop) -pressurized water, secondary circuit (loop) - water steam and tertiary circuit - cooling water flow. For the production of the greater part of electric power in fuel plant is necessary the water. That is reason why the study of water power resources presupposes preliminary study of water resources for electricity. Nuclear (fusion) power, solar radiation with heat converted to mechanical and electrical power, and biomass technologies (fuelwood) shall be third source of renowable energy in the future, with needs for water.

Keywords: hydro, resources, water, fuel, electric power, pump, plant, tidal power plant, marine energy resources, geothermal heat, small hydro project, termo plant, nuclear power, waves, Sun, biomass, fuelwood.

Research goals: The book for postgraduate study. "Hydroelectricity".


  1. Name of institution: HRVATSKA ELEKTROPRIVREDA
    Type of institution: Economical/Production
    Type of cooperation: Systematic exchange of information
    City: 21000 - Split, Croatia

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Last update: 10/09/95