Type of research: developmental Duration from: 06/01/91. to 12/31/93. Papers on project (total): 2
Institution name: Građevinski fakultet, Split (83) Department/Institute: DEPARTMENT OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES Address: MATICE HRVATSKE 15 City: 21000 - Split, Croatia
Phone: 385 (0)21 52 33 33
Fax: 385 (0)21 52 41 62
Summary: WATER RESOURCES FOR ELECTRICITY Fuel
and water are the main sources for production of electric power, where
hydropower is regarded as primary and thermal generated power as secondary
source of energy. World reserves of commercial flues are limited and
recent studies confirm world's energy challenges. Hydro potential in
world's hydro resources: river, oceans and underground is vast. Hydro is
expected to play an important role in future electiricity supply in all
cases. The hydrological characteristics of river water determine the
fundamental characteristics of water power, in conventional hydroelectric
power plants, as renewable energy resources. Renewable energy is energy
form, the supply of wich is partly or wholly regenerated in the course of
annual solar cycle. Future prospect for hydropower challenges hydro
development with technological progress and improvement of hydro schemes.
Pumped storage plants, with reversible pump - turbine technology, are
worldwide. The development of new pump storage facilities in some cases is
made economically feasible through innovations such as the utilization of
existing excaveted (mined) space for underground lower reservoirs. Upper
regulating reservoirs in many cases are multipurpose man made lakes and
lower reservoirs are the existing reservoirs. The west developed countries
have recently initiated intiatives to modernize the system of existing
hydropower plants, increasing its capacity and efficiency, and ensuring
that the system will continue to perform reliable, into next century.
Modern hydro construction has led to the necessity to revise the designes
of future schemes, including some which are already under construction.
In many countries on the sea side future developments are planed in tidal
power plants, with tidal barrage, a large dam across bayor in estuary,
with capture the tide and discharges through reversible bulb turbines.
There are numerous marine energy resources projects and hydroelectric
schemes throughout the oceans nad seas. On and off shore wave energy
potential and trends in turbine technology are in operational experiences
with pilot plants. Researches have greatly contributed to theoretical and
practical work of wave power absorption device with near shore or of shore
"dams" across the propagation direction of wave energy flux.
Geothermal power is derived from natural internal heat of the
earth. It is extracted as a heated fluid, usualy water or mixture of steam
and water (wet steam), but sometimes dry steam. In a few countries
geothermal power mainly is converted to electrical power at or very close
to the place where is tapped. Geothermal total resources is enermous, but
only a very small proportion can be exploited with present technology. It
should be noted that in the last years has started to devote special
attention to development of small hydro shemes. Miny hydro project might
comprise 5 - 10 percent of the world's total hydro resources. In isolated
areas, for village electrification schemes and small industry they can
supplement or replace diesels. Deriving small hydropower is possible today
with packaged micro hydro units. It is now generally accepted that energy
problem of the 1970's was no passing phenomenon, but marked the end of an
era of cheap coal and oil, and transition to high cost energy. Given the
large increases in oil prices many hydro sites wich were previously
uneconomical have bicome attractive. Coventional resources for electric
power, as it known, are hydro, thermo and nuclear power. Termo electric
power plants (steam generating station) need water for steam, cooling and
sometimes for transport slag, cinder and dross. Nuclear power plants
(fission) with commercial PWR reactors have three water's circuit: primary
circuit (loop) -pressurized water, secondary circuit (loop) - water steam
and tertiary circuit - cooling water flow. For the production of the
greater part of electric power in fuel plant is necessary the water. That
is reason why the study of water power resources presupposes preliminary
study of water resources for electricity. Nuclear (fusion) power, solar
radiation with heat converted to mechanical and electrical power, and
biomass technologies (fuelwood) shall be third source of renowable energy
in the future, with needs for water.
Keywords: hydro, resources, water, fuel, electric power, pump, plant, tidal power plant, marine energy resources, geothermal heat, small hydro project, termo plant, nuclear power, waves, Sun, biomass, fuelwood.
Research goals: The book for postgraduate study. "Hydroelectricity".
COOPERATION - INSTITUTIONS
Name of institution
: HRVATSKA ELEKTROPRIVREDA Type of institution: Economical/Production Type of cooperation: Systematic exchange of information City: 21000 - Split, Croatia Other information about the project.