SVIBOR - Project code: 1-07-227


Strossmayerov trg 4, HR - 10000 ZAGREB
tel.: +385 1 459 44 44, fax: +385 1 459 44 69


SVIBOR - Collecting Data on Projects in Croatia

Project code: 1-07-227


Main researcher: POPOVIĆ, KREŠIMIR (73141)

Type of research: developmental
Duration from: 04/30/91. to 12/31/95.

Papers on project (total): 22
Institution name: Institut građevinarstva Hrvatske, Zagreb (110)
Department/Institute: Department for Concrete and Masonry Structures Cementitious Materials Division
Address: Janka Rakuše 1
City: 10000 - Zagreb, Croatia
Phone: 385 (0)1 6136444 , 6113860
Fax: 385 (0)1 534737

Summary: Owing to their composition and structure certain waste materials exhibit latent cementitious properties. Therefore they are for years used as secondary raw materials in civil engineering, mostly in cement production. The reason for that is energy saving for cement clinker burning (approx. 3.4 MJ/kg), since part of clinker in cement is replaced by the material which received energy for hydraulic activation in previous industrial treatment. Admixtures such as slags, ashes, condensed silica fume from ferro alloys production, "inert" filler (limestone) and others modify properties of fresh and hardened concrete and mortar. Besides the technical aspect of applying these materials the ecologycal point of view is very important. Primarily, incorporating industrial wastes into building materials is a way of waste management since it results in landfills decreasing. On the other hand waste materials often contain increased concentrations of substances dangerous for human health and environment (heavy metals, toxic organic or even radioactive components etc.). There is not much knowledge about the influence of waste on the environment of structures incorporating those materials (radioactivity, leaching into soil and water etc.). Although some leaching tests have been developed in USA, Canada, Netherlands and Germany, the unique approach to this problem does not exist yet.

Keywords: waste materials, secondary raw materials, fly ash, slag, silica fume, cement limestone, ecology, environment pollution, radiation, health hazzard, building material, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, dust precipitators, toxic, heavy metal, leaching, energy saving

Research goals: It is necessary to aim at the reuse of waste materials since it is the most suitable way of waste management. However it is important to minimize the risks of health hazard and environment pollution caused by leaching or emission of dangerous substances, incorporated in building materials. The expected contribution of this research is the adoption of optimized technical uses of available waste materials as secondary raw materials in civil engineering. There are several goals of this research. First, to collect general data concerning environment pollution by cement production since this industry is one of the most promising in using and management of waste materials. Influence to the environment has to be considered depending on raw materials and fuel composition, sistem of combustion and cement clinker burning, thermochemical reactions of raw materials conversion, forming and composition of gases, dust collection etc. The other aim is to examine possibility of using waste materials as (secondary) fuel in cement kilns from the aspects of energy utilization level, place and way of combustion and influence on product (cement) properties as well as on composition and emission of exit gases into the environment. By using waste materials as mineral admixtures either to raw materials prior to burning or to the final product (cement) the goal is to find out the inluence on the cement properties, and on the other hand the hazard due to the leaching of harmful components, especially heavy metals, into the environment of objects censtructed by use of such cement.


  1. Name of institution: Građevinski fakultet Split
    Type of institution: University/Faculty
    Type of cooperation: Joint publishing of scientific papers
    City: 21000 - Split, Croatia

  2. Name of institution: Zavod za javno zdravstvo
    Type of institution: Non-profit
    Type of cooperation: Occasional exchange of information
    City: 10000 - Zagreb, Croatia

  3. Name of institution: DALMACIJACEMENT
    Type of institution: Economical/Production
    Type of cooperation: Systematic exchange of information
    City: Kaštel Sućurac, Hrvatska

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Last update: 11/17/95